What are the basic parts and parts of the engine?

What are the basic parts and parts of the engine?

As an engine base; It consists of main mechanical parts such as cylinder head , engine block and oil pan .

In addition:

  • Engine cooling system,
  • Lubrication System,
    Valve System,
  • Fuel injection system,
  • Air supply system,
  • Exhaust System,
  • Ignition system,
  • Charging system,
  • Starter system,
  • It is equipped with additional equipment such as the engine control unit (ECU) .

We can examine the engine parts in two basic parts as ”stationary engine parts” and “moving engine parts..
Stationary engine parts:
Engine block, cylinder head, top cover (cylinder head cover), intake manifold, exhaust manifold, crankcase.
Moving engine parts:
Piston, connecting rod, crankshaft, camshaft, valves (intake and exhaust).


Engine Block: Piston, cylinder, connecting rod, crankshaft, such as parts are available. The engine block is the main part to which all other engine parts are connected.

(Engine Block)

Piston: The combustion pressure in the combustion chamber occurs in the cylinder moves, this movement is transmitted to the crankshaft with the connecting rod. Provides lubrication with oil segments and combustion chamber sealing with compression segments. For more information (See Piston)

Connecting Rod: This part, also referred to as piston rod, is connected to the piston by piston pin from the top, and to the crankshaft by connecting rod bearings from the bottom. It transmits the movement of the piston to the connecting rod at the moment of combustion and transmits the thrust force of the crankshaft to the piston at the moment of compression. That is, the part connecting the piston and the crankshaft to each other.

Crankshaft: It is one of the most important parts of the engine which converts the linear movement of the piston coming from the connecting rod into a circular (rotation) movement with the connecting rod. The rotation of the engine is produced on the crankshaft and is transmitted to the drivetrain with the flywheel. Crankshaft, main bearings, connecting rod bearings, oil channels, balancing weights; The crankshaft has a crankshaft pulley on the front and a flywheel on the rear.

Crankshaft pulley ; rotates the belt that drives engine equipment such as the alternator, water pump, air conditioning compressor.

Flywheel ; The engine power (rotation) is transmitted to the clutch and gearbox.

(Crank – Pulley – Flywheel)


Cylinder Head: Intake and exhaust camshafts, valves, spark plugs in petrol engines, injectors in diesel engines (and direct injection petrol engines), exhaust and intake air passage ducts.

The cylinder head usually has two camshafts, one for controlling the exhaust and one for the intake valves, allowing the valves to open and close on time.

camshaft rotates the gears when taking the camshaft motion from a gear located behind the crankshaft pulley. The rotational movement of the crankshaft is synchronously transferred to the camshaft timing gear by means of a timing belt or timing chain. While the crankshaft makes two turns (720 o ) from one cycle , the camshaft sprocket makes 1 turn (360 o ). (See Camshaft)


(Cylinder Head – Engine Block Section View and All Parts)

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